PALLISTER-KILLIAN Syndrome

OMIM #601803 ICD+ SNOMEDCT: 395657006, SNOMEDCT: 9527009
PALLISTER-KILLIAN SYNDROME; PKS
 
Alternative titles; symbols
TETRASOMY 12p, MOSAIC
ISOCHROMOSOME 12p SYNDROME
 
Other entities represented in this entry:
HEXASOMY 12p, MOSAIC, INCLUDED
 
Clinical Synopsis
 
TEXT
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a dysmorphic condition caused by mosaicism for tetrasomy of chromosome 12p.
 
Description
Pallister-Killian syndrome is a dysmorphic condition involving most organ systems, but also characterized by a tissue-limited mosaicism; most fibroblasts have 47 chromosomes with an extra small metacentric chromosome, whereas the karyotype of lymphocytes is normal. The extra metacentric chromosome is an isochromosome for part of the short arm of chromosome 12: i(12)(p10) (Peltomaki et al., 1987; Warburton et al., 1987).
 
Clinical Features
Schinzel (1991)reviewed the clinical and cytogenetic features of the Pallister-Killian syndrome. Clinical features include profound mental retardation, seizures, streaks of hypo- or hyper-pigmentation, and facial anomalies, including prominent forehead with sparse anterior scalp hair, flat occiput, hypertelorism, short nose with anteverted nostrils, flat nasal bridge, and short neck. At birth, affected the infants have temporofrontal balding or sparseness, which, together with the abundant hair over the top of the head, gives a pattern like that of Iroquois Indians. This pattern disappears later if the child continues to have abnormal hair.Zakowski et al. (1992) described absence of the pericardium and focal aplasia cutis in the axillary area in PKS.

Mauceri et al. (2000) reported a 15-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian syndrome and pineal tumor. They pointed out that isochromosome 12p is a frequent cytogenetic marker of germ cell tumors (testicular and ovarian) and has been observed in pineal germ cell tumors (de Bruin et al., 1994).

Genevieve et al. (2003) described an unusual case of i(12p) in a 15-year-old boy who had mild mental retardation, minor facial features, normal weight, length, and cranial measurements, as well as hyperpigmented streaks. The boy attended normal school until the age of 14 years. Because of the hyperpigmented streaks, chromosome analysis was performed on skin fibroblasts, which showed 37% of cells had an additional isochromosome for the short arm of chromosome 12.

Yeung et al. (2009) reported a girl with PKS who was referred at age 7 months for developmental delay and dysmorphic features. She had temporal alopecia, periorbital fullness, ptosis, nystagmus, wide mouth, long philtrum, and cleft palate. Other features included single palmar creases, bilateral accessory nipples, small hands and feet with dorsal edema, and hypoplasia of the labia with a common anal and vaginal opening. She had delayed growth parameters, moderate hypotonia, and global developmental delay. Although considerable developmental progress was achieved over the ensuing year, including gross motor skills and ability to stand and vocalize, this progression did not continue after 2 years. FISH analysis detected a supernumerary ring chromosome in 38% of buccal mucosa cells and 41% of skin fibroblasts, but did not detect the abnormality in blood cells. In this patient, tetrasomy 12p resulted from a ring chromosome containing 2 copies of chromosome 12p13-cen, not the usual i(12p). Yeung et al. (2009) postulated that the more advanced developmental progress in this patient compared to patients with typical PKS may have resulted from a smaller tetrasomic segment or different tissue distribution of the ring chromosome. Tissue distribution would be expected to differ if the ring chromosome arose during a postzygotic mitotic division, rather than at meiosis, as is typical for isochromosome PKS.

Pallister-Killian Syndrome Due to Hexasomy of Chromosome 12p

Vogel et al. (2009) reported a 5-year-old girl with PKS resulting from mosaicism for 2 supernumerary isochromosomes, or hexasomy 12p. Polyhydramnios, preaxial polydactyly, and congenital heart disease were detected at 36 weeks’ gestation. After birth, she was noted to have a large nuchal fold, sparse woolly hair, frontal bossing, micrognathia, hypertelorism, large low-set ears, broad nose, anteverted nostrils, long philtrum, high palate, nail hypoplasia, and atypical palmar creases. She also had hearing deficit and hypermetropia. She was hypotonic, and motor skills were delayed, and she was not able to stand at age 24 months due to hip dystrophy. At 4 months of age, she had poor growth parameters, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with an ejection fraction of 30%, bilateral inguinal hernias, and hypopigmented streaks with dry skin. By 5 years of age she had only a mild developmental delay, with an IQ of 81. Analysis of cultured skin fibroblasts with FISH and comparative genomic hybridization showed hexasomy 12p in 18% of cells. Vogel et al. (2009) noted that this was the second second live case of mosaicism for hexasomy 12p to be reported; the first being that of Choo et al. (2002) in a 2-year-old girl with coarse facies, mental and motor retardation, cleft palate, rhizomelic shortening of limbs, and a diaphragmatic hernia, due to 35% tetrasomy and 15% hexasomy 12p. Vogel et al. (2009) suggested that phenotypic variation in PKS is most likely a result of which tissue types carry the mosaic cell line more than the percentage of mosaic cells or gene-dosage effects.

 
Cytogenetics
Peltomaki et al. (1987) used a probe of the KRAS2 gene (190070) to confirm that the extra chromosome in Pallister-Killian syndrome is composed of 2 short arms of chromosome 12. Hunter et al. (1985) used LDHB (150100) for the same purpose. Peltomaki et al. (1987) showed that the 2 short arms are identical, thus indicating that it represents an isochromosome 12p. Peltomaki et al. (1987) reported findings that may explain the mechanism of origin of the tissue-limited mosaicism: the proportion of abnormal mitoses fell dramatically during long-term culture of fibroblasts. See also Zhang et al. (1989). Wenger et al. (1990)concluded that the tissue-specific mosaicism in the 12p isochromosome syndrome is best explained by in vivo and perhaps also in vitro loss of the isochromosome from 47,XY (or XX), plus i(12p) cells.Cormier-Daire et al. (1997) used microsatellite DNA markers on 12p alleles of maternal origin in cultured skin fibroblasts of a case of PKS. The findings suggested that the tetrasomy 12p was the result of a prezygotic event, with a nondisjunction event during maternal meiosis.

Schubert et al. (1997) reported 2 cases of Pallister-Killian syndrome in which the distribution of the additional isochromosome of 12p was analyzed in various tissues. One case, diagnosed prenatally, showed mosaicism for i(12p) in chorionic villi and in amniocytes but the isochromosome was absent in cultured lymphocytes of fetal blood taken at 21 weeks. Long-term culture of umbilical cord showed the isochromosome in 100% of metaphases. In the second case of a term infant, the i(12p) was diagnosed in cultured lymphocytes (4%) and fibroblasts (93%). Secondary loss of the isochromosome was demonstrated in the second case by analyzing metaphases and interphases of fibroblasts in the first, fourth, and fifth subculture using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The proportion of cells with the isochromosome decreased from 93% to 40% and then to 28%, respectively. DNA analysis in case 1 showed a maternal meiotic origin of the i(12p). In case 1, the mother was 44 and the father was 54 years old. Ultrasonography showed flat profile, diaphragmatic hernia, and enlargement of the fourth cerebral ventricle. The infant was stillborn at 27 weeks.

 
Diagnosis
Speleman et al. (1991)used fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome 12-specific DNA probes for the rapid and reliable detection of the i(12p) chromosome. Detection was possible also in interphase cells.Ohashi et al. (1993) used interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization with a chromosome 12-specific alpha satellite probe for diagnosis of PKS in buccal mucosal cells. Isochromosome 12p-positive cells showed 3 signals over the nucleus, while diploid cells had 2 signals.

Prenatal Diagnosis

Soukup and Neidich (1990) made the diagnosis of Pallister-Killian syndrome on routine amniocentesis. In the aborted fetus, various degrees of mosaicism were found in 4 tissues.

 
History
This syndrome was independently reported by Pallister et al. (1977) and Teschler-Nicola and Killian (1981) because of the characteristic combination of clinical manifestations, especially the combination of coarse face, pigmentary skin anomalies, localized alopecia, profound mental retardation and seizures, and the relatively frequent occurrence of diaphragmatic defects and supernumerary nipples. The presence of tetrasomy 12p was not recognized because chromosomal studies of fibroblasts were not done. In fact, according to Pallister (2003), chromosome studies of fibroblasts were performed by his colleague Lorraine Meisner, but the anonymous chromosome was misinterpreted.
 
See Also:
Yanez et al. (1987)
 
REFERENCES
1. Choo, S., Teo, S. H., Tan, M., Yong, M. H., Ho, L. Y. Tissue-limited mosaicism in Pallister-Killian syndrome–a case in point. J. Perinatol. 22: 420-423, 2002. [PubMed: 12082482, related citations] [Full Text: Nature Publishing Group, Pubget]
 
2. Cormier-Daire, V., Le Merrer, M., Gigarel, N., Morichon, N., Prieur, M., Lyonnet, S., Vekemans, M., Munnich, A. Prezygotic origin of the isochromosome 12p in Pallister-Killian syndrome. Am. J. Med. Genet. 69: 166-168, 1997. [PubMed: 9056554, related citations] [Full Text: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Pubget]
 
3. de Bruin, T. W. A., Slater, R. M., Defferrari, R., Geurts van Kessel, A., Suijkerbuijk, R. F., Jansen, G., de Jong, B., Oosterhuis, J. W. Isochromosome 12p-positive pineal germ cell tumor. Cancer Res. 54: 1542-1544, 1994. [PubMed: 8137260, related citations] [Full Text: HighWire Press, Pubget]
 
4. Genevieve, D., Cormier-Daire, V., Sanlaville, D., Faivre, L., Gosset, P., Allart, L., Picq, M., Munnich, A., Romana, S., de Blois, M., Vekemans, M. Mild phenotype in a 15-year-old boy with Pallister-Killian syndrome. Am. J. Med. Genet. 116A: 90-93, 2003. [PubMed: 12476459, related citations] [Full Text: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Pubget]
 
5. Hunter, A. G. W., Clifford, B., Cox, D. M. The characteristic physiognomy and tissue specific karyotype distribution in the Pallister-Killian syndrome. Clin. Genet. 28: 47-53, 1985. [PubMed: 4028501, related citations] [Full Text: Pubget]
 
6. Mauceri, L., Sorge, G., Incorpora, G., Pavone, L. Pallister-Killian syndrome: case report with pineal tumor. Am. J. Med. Genet. 95: 75-78, 2000. [PubMed: 11074499, related citations] [Full Text: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Pubget]
 
7. Ohashi, H., Ishikiriyama, S., Fukushima, Y. New diagnostic method for Pallister-Killian syndrome: detection of i(12p) in interphase nuclei of buccal mucosa by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Am. J. Med. Genet. 45: 123-128, 1993. [PubMed: 8418650, related citations] [Full Text: Pubget]
 
8. Pallister, P. D. Personal Communication. Boulder, Mont. 1/30/2003.
 
9. Pallister, P. D., Meisner, L. F., Elejalde, B. R., Francke, U., Herrmann, J., Spranger, J., Tiddy, W., Inhorn, S. L., Opitz, J. M. The Pallister mosaic syndrome. Birth Defects Orig. Art. Ser. XIII(3B): 103-110, 1977.
 
10. Peltomaki, P., Knuutila, S., Ritvanen, A., Kaitila, I., de la Chapelle, A. Pallister-Killian syndrome: cytogenetic and molecular studies. Clin. Genet. 31: 399-405, 1987. [PubMed: 2887316, related citations] [Full Text: Pubget]
 
11. Schinzel, A. Tetrasomy 12p (Pallister-Killian syndrome). J. Med. Genet. 28: 122-125, 1991. [PubMed: 2002482, related citations] [Full Text: HighWire Press, Pubget]
 
12. Schubert, R., Viersbach, R., Eggermann, T., Hansmann, M., Schwanitz, G. Report of two new cases of Pallister-Killian syndrome confirmed by FISH: tissue-specific mosaicism and loss of i(12p) by in vitro selection. Am. J. Med. Genet. 72: 106-110, 1997. [PubMed: 9295085, related citations] [Full Text: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Pubget]
 
13. Soukup, S., Neidich, K. Prenatal diagnosis of Pallister-Killian syndrome. Am. J. Med. Genet. 35: 526-528, 1990. [PubMed: 1692181, related citations] [Full Text: Pubget]
 
14. Speleman, F., Leroy, J. G., Van Roy, N., De Paepe, A., Suijkerbuijk, R., Brunner, H., Looijenga, L., Verschraegen-Spae, M.-R., Orye, E. Pallister-Killian syndrome: characterization of the isochromosome 12p by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Am. J. Med. Genet. 41: 381-387, 1991. [PubMed: 1789295, related citations] [Full Text: Pubget]
 
15. Teschler-Nicola, M., Killian, W. Case report 72: mental retardation, unusual facial appearance, abnormal hair. Synd. Ident. 7: 6-7, 1981.
 
16. Vogel, I., Lyngbye, T., Nielsen, A., Pedersen, S., Hertz, J. M. Pallister-Killian syndrome in a girl with mild developmental delay and mosaicism for hexasomy 12p. Am. J. Med. Genet. 149A: 510-514, 2009. [PubMed: 19215056, related citations] [Full Text: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Pubget]
 
17. Warburton, D., Anyane-Yeboa, K., Francke, U. Mosaic tetrasomy 12p: four new cases, and confirmation of the chromosomal origin of the supernumerary chromosome in one of the Pallister-Mosaic syndrome cases. Am. J. Med. Genet. 27: 275-283, 1987. [PubMed: 3605213, related citations] [Full Text: Pubget]
 
18. Wenger, S. L., Boone, L. Y., Steele, M. W. Mosaicism in Pallister i(12p) syndrome. Am. J. Med. Genet. 35: 523-525, 1990. [PubMed: 2333883, related citations] [Full Text: Pubget]
 
19. Yanez, L., Groffen, J., Valenzuela, D. M. c-K-ras mutations in human carcinomas occur preferentially in codon 12. Oncogene 1: 315-318, 1987. [PubMed: 3330777, related citations] [Full Text: Pubget]
 
20. Yeung, A., Francis, D., Giouzeppos, O., Amor, D. J. Pallister-Killian syndrome caused by mosaicism for a supernumerary ring chromosome 12p. Am. J. Med. Genet. 149A: 505-509, 2009. [PubMed: 19215037, related citations] [Full Text: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Pubget]
 
21. Zakowski, M. F., Wright, Y., Ricci, A., Jr. Pericardial agenesis and focal aplasia cutis in tetrasomy 12p (Pallister-Killian syndrome). Am. J. Med. Genet. 42: 323-325, 1992. [PubMed: 1536171, related citations] [Full Text: Pubget]
 
22. Zhang, J., Marynen, P., Devriendt, K., Fryns, J.-P., Van den Berghe, H., Cassiman, J.-J. Molecular analysis of the isochromosome 12p in the Pallister-Killian syndrome: construction of a mouse-human hybrid cell line containing an i(12p) as the sole human chromosome. Hum. Genet. 83: 359-363, 1989. [PubMed: 2807276, related citations] [Full Text: Pubget]
 
▸ Contributors: Cassandra L. Kniffin – updated : 2/16/2010
 
Victor A. McKusick – updated : 2/3/2003
Victor A. McKusick – updated : 1/31/2003
Victor A. McKusick – updated : 11/10/2000
Victor A. McKusick – updated : 10/3/1997
Victor A. McKusick – updated : 6/19/1997
Creation Date: Victor A. McKusick : 5/15/1997
▸ Edit History: carol : 04/05/2010

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