What is Apert syndrome?
Apert syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by the premature fusion of certain skull bones (craniosynostosis). This early fusion prevents the skull from growing normally and affects the shape of the head and face. In addition, a varied number of fingers and toes are fused together (syndactyly).
Many of the characteristic facial features of Apert syndrome result from the premature fusion of the skull bones. The head is unable to grow normally, which leads to a sunken appearance in the middle of the face, bulging and wide-set eyes, a beaked nose, and an underdeveloped upper jaw leading to crowded teeth and other dental problems. Shallow eye sockets can cause vision problems. Early fusion of the skull bones also affects the development of the brain, which can disrupt intellectual development. Cognitive abilities in people with Apert syndrome range from normal to mild or moderate intellectual disability.
Individuals with Apert syndrome have webbed or fused fingers and toes. The severity of the fusion varies; at a minimum, three digits on each hand and foot are fused together. In the most severe cases, all of the fingers and toes are fused. Less commonly, people with this condition may have extra fingers or toes (polydactyly). Additional signs and symptoms of Apert syndrome can include hearing loss, unusually heavy sweating (hyperhidrosis), oily skin with severe acne, patches of missing hair in the eyebrows, fusion of spinal bones in the neck (cervical vertebrae), and recurrent ear infections that may be associated with an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate).
How common is Apert syndrome?
Apert syndrome affects an estimated 1 in 65,000 to 88,000 newborns.
What genes are related to Apert syndrome?
Mutations in the FGFR2 gene cause Apert syndrome. This gene produces a protein called fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. Among its multiple functions, this protein signals immature cells to become bone cells during embryonic development. A mutation in a specific part of the FGFR2 gene alters the protein and causes prolonged signaling, which can promote the premature fusion of bones in the skull, hands, and feet.
Read more about the FGFR2 gene.
How do people inherit Apert syndrome?
Apert syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. Almost all cases of Apert syndrome result from new mutations in the gene, and occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. Individuals with Apert syndrome, however, can pass along the condition to the next generation.
Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of Apert syndrome?
These resources address the diagnosis or management of Apert syndrome and may include treatment providers.
- Gene Review: FGFR-Related Craniosynostosis
- Gene Tests: FGFR2-Related Craniosynostosis
- Genetic Alliance
- MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Apert syndrome
- MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Webbing of the fingers or toes
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.
Where can I find additional information about Apert syndrome?
You may find the following resources about Apert syndrome helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
MedlinePlus – Health information (3 links)
- Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center – Information about genetic conditions and rare diseases
- Additional NIH Resources – National Institutes of Health
Educational resources – Information pages (9 links)
Patient support – For patients and families (6 links)
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.
What other names do people use for Apert syndrome?
- Acrocephalosyndactyly (Apert)
What if I still have specific questions about Apert syndrome?
Where can I find general information about genetic conditions?
The Handbook provides basic information about genetics in clear language.
- What does it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family?
- What are the different ways in which a genetic condition can be inherited?
- If a genetic disorder runs in my family, what are the chances that my children will have the condition?
- Why are some genetic conditions more common in particular ethnic groups?
These links provide additional genetics resources that may be useful.
What glossary definitions help with understanding Apert syndrome?
acne ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cell ; cleft palate ; craniosynostosis ; embryonic ; fibroblast ; gene ; growth factor ; hyperhidrosis ; infection ; mutation ; new mutation ; ocular proptosis ; palate ; polydactyly ; proptosis ; protein ; receptor ; sign ; symptom ; syndactyly ; syndrome ; vertebra
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.
See also Understanding Medical Terminology.
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.